Sciatica or sciatic neuralgia is a commoncondition in which one of the spinal nerve roots of the sciatic nerve is compressed resultingin lower back, buttock and leg pain. Sciatic nerve is a large nerve derived from 5 spinalnerve roots: L4, L5, S1, S2 and S3. It runs from the lumbar spine through the buttockdown the leg and the foot on the posterior aspect. There is one sciatic nerve on eachside of the body. Typically, only one side of the body is affected.A typical sciatica pain is described as a sharp shooting pain in the lower back, downthe buttock, thigh and leg on one side of the body. There may also be numbness, burningand tingling sensations. The pain can get
worse with sitting, moving, sneezing, or coughing.The patterns of pain depend on which nerve root is compressed, and follow the dermatomedistribution. The most common cause of sciatica is a herniatedspinal disc. The spinal disc is a soft elastic cushion that sits in between the vertebraeof the spine. With age, the discs become rigid and may crack, the gellike center of thedisc may protrude out and become a herniation outside the normal boundaries of the disc.Disc herniation presses on the nerve root as it exits the spine.In majority of the cases the condition resolves by itself after a few weeks of rest and conservativetreatment. Pain relief, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory
drugs and muscle relaxants may be prescribed.Stretching exercises and physical therapy may be recommended.Surgery may be needed if the pain doesn't go away after 3 months or more of conservativetreatments. The herniated disc may be removed in a procedure called discectomy. Or, in anotherprocedure called laminotomy, part of the bone of the vertebrae may be cut to make room forthe nerve.
Standard Anatomical Position Directional Terms Anatomy and Physiology 24
Alright now I want you guys to stand up. No with your arms to the side. Now raise your leg. No I mean put your knee to the chest. Now just. man I don't know. If only there was a standard way to explain our body relations. Wait there isé And it's in the tutorial I am doing right now in front of the green screen. And I should know this because I wrote the tutorial I am doing right now! Hurray for me! What's going on everybody! My name is Jack Jenkins and yes. I know I am a great actor. Today we are going to talk about the anatomical position and the Directional terms. Music
When describing directions to a friend who's too cheap to buy a gps you need two things. A reference point then a direction. For instance go to the train tracks then turn right onto them. To describe our body correctly we need the same two things, an initial reference point and some direction. The reference point for our bodies is called the standard anatomical position. The standard anatomical position is when the body is standing erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward and thumbs pointing out. This position is easy to remember because pretty much all anatomy pictures are in this position. Now that we have our anatomical reference point it's time for us to get some direction in our life.
Directional terms tells us the body structures in relationship to each other. Like a compass on a map. Informally we would have to say, the forehead is slightly above the nose. With directional terms we would say the forehead is superior to the nose. Directional terms don't just help us describe our body but they also make us sound smarter. Who doesn't want to sound smarteré For the rest of the tutorial we will be going over all the directional terms and give out some examples. Readyé Let's rock! The first directional term is superior or cranial. Superior means towards the upper part of the body. For instance the head is superior to the legs. The second term is inferior or caudal. Inferior means towards the lower part of the body.
An example is the navel is inferior to the thorax. The next two terms are ventral or anterior and dorsal or posterior. In human anatomy anterior means the front of the body whereas the posterior means the back of the body. For example the breastbone is anterior to the spine and the spine is posterior to the breastbone. In animal anatomy anterior refers to the leading portion of the body where posterior means the bottom or back part of the body. We will discuss this further in the miniseries on canine anatomy available to prime members at academyofone . Please subscribe to there. I need more clothes money. Next up is medial. Medial means toward the middle of the body.
For instance the heart is medial to the shoulder. The opposite of medial is lateral which means away from the middle of the body. The shoulder is lateral to the Breast. Inbetween medial and lateral is intermediate. The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder bone. Proximal describes when a body part is closer to the body trunk. For instance the elbow is proximal to the fingers or the knees are proximal to the toes. Distal is the opposite of proximal. Distal describes when a body part is farther to the body trunk. The fingers are distal to the elbow and the toes are distal from the knees. The next two terms are ipsilateral and contralateral. Ipsilateral means on the same side of the body.
For instance the right arm and right leg are ipsilateral to each other. Contralateral means on the opposite sides of the body. The right arm and the left leg are contralateral to each other. Superficial or external means towards the surface of the body. For instance the skin is external to the skeletal system. Lastly is deep or internal. The lungs are deep to the skin. Now we went over a lot today so I want you to rewatch the tutorial a second time and make sure you keep note of the different terms. If you buy the course you get questions at the end of the tutorial and this is one time where the questions are vital to understanding the subject on a deeper level. Answer the questions if you have the course