Alzheimers Disease AD Pathology and Genetics Animation
Alzheimer's disease, or AD, is a very commonneurodegenerative disorder in which brain cells are progressively damaged and die, leadingto loss of memory, thinking skills and eventually all other brain functions.A brain consists of billions of neurons, or nerve cells, which communicate via chemicalmessages, or neurotransmitters. This communication occurs in a space between neurons, calleda synapse. Neuron communication is essential to all brain activities.An Alzheimer's brain is characterized by presence of abnormal plaques and tangles.Plaques are clumps of a peptide known as betaamyloid. Betaamyloid derives from a larger membraneprotein normally present on the surface of
nerve cells. These clumps are toxic to nervecells and may block celltocell signaling at synapses. They are also believed to triggerinflammation responses that bring further damage to the brain tissue.Tangles are formations of a protein named tau. Tau protein's major function is tostabilize axonal microtubules â€“ the tubular structures that run along axons of neuronsand are responsible for intracellular transport. In AD patients, tau molecules are misfoldedand clump into tangles. As a result, the microtubules are disintegrated and cellular transport isimpaired. As the toxic deposits of plaques and tanglesincrease, neurons stop functioning, lose connections
with each other, and die.The damage initially takes place in the hippocampus, the part of the brain that is essential informing memories. That is why shortterm memory loss is usually one of the first symptomsof Alzheimer's. Plaques and tangles tend to spread through the cortex in a predictablepattern as the disease progresses. New symptoms appear accordingly and in an order that correspondsto different stages of the disease. At the final stage, the brain shrinks dramaticallyand nearly all its functions are affected. Most people with Alzheimer's show firstsymptoms after the age of 65, while the process of neuron destruction has probably startedmany years earlier. For this form of lateonset
AD, the cause remains largely unknown, buta combination of environmental and genetic factors is likely. Notably, a certain formof a lipoprotein named Apolipoprotein E is shown to increase susceptibility to the disease.For a small subset of AD cases known as Familial Alzheimer's Disease, genetic factors havebeen identified. This rare form of AD is linked to a mutation in one of several genes involvedin betaamyloid production. For this group, the disease strikes earlier in life, commonlybetween 50 and 65 years of age, but can be earlier.Currently there is no cure for Alzheimer's. Treatments aim to slow down the process ofdestruction and relieve symptoms to improve
quality of life for patients and caregivers.
Treating Sciatic Pain Daniel Yadagar Interventional Pain Management Physician
Hi, I'm Daniel Yadegar,Â I'm anInterventional pain management specialist with the Orlin and Cohen Orthopedic Group.More often than not people ask me what exactly is interventional pain managementéInterventional pain management is a discipline of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and treatmentof pain related disorders. Â Our goal is to relieve, reduce, or managepain and improve a patient's overall quality of life. This is accomplished by utilizinga multidisciplinary approach,Â in which a team of health care professionals workÂ togetherÂ toprovide a full range of treatment optionsÂ and services for patients suffering from chronicandor acute pain.Â
Common musculoskeletal pain disorders include:Back, Hip, and Leg Pain Neck, Shoulder and Arm Painâ€œWhiplashâ€� Injuries Work Related InjuriesSports Injuries Failed Back Surgery and Other Post SurgicalPain Syndromes Myofascial PainFacet Syndrome Sacroiliac Joint Pain Today I will be briefly talking about backpain with sciatica (or pain radiating down the leg).Â This is a common complaint thatwe encounter on a daily basis. Sciatic pain
results when injury or pressure have compressedthe spinal roots or nerves that branch off the spinal cord in the lower region of thespine.Â Sciatic painÂ can be described as sharp, dull,burning, tingly, numb, continuous, or intermittent and usually affects only one side of the body.Â There may be associatedÂ weakness in the affected limb as well.Sciatic pain is most often the result of aÂ herniated disc,Â spinal stenosis, orÂ narrowing of thespinal canal associated with arthritis or bony overgrowth, or in extremely rare cases,infection or tumor. An initial work up including a detailed andcomprehensive history and physical examÂ is
the first step in diagnosis.Â Further workup may be needed such as imaging studies (which include xrays, MRIs CT scans) and or nervestudy testing. Once the diagnosis of the cause of sciaticahas been determined, a treatment plan is then established.Â Most cases of back pain resolvewith nonsurgical treatment. Â Some of the most common nonsurgical treatment optionsthat we utilize are physical therapy and exercise, medication management and spinal injections.As an interventional pain physician, I am trained through the use of xray guidanceor flouroscopy to deliver potent medications targeted specifically to the affected siteof inflammation in the spine. Â The use of
flouroscopy allows the medication to be placedsafely and precisely.Â These procedures are done as an outpatient in our accredited flouroscopysuite, which is fully staffed with certified personnel and licensed anesthesiologists.Â Other common procedures that we are trained to administer for appropriate musculoskeletalproblems include: Cervical, thoracic, and caudal Epidural SteroidInjections Facet Joint InjectionsÂ Medial Branch or Nerve Blocks Radiofrequency AblationÂ SacroiIiac Joint injections Hip InjectionsTrigger Point Injections
Bursa InjectionsLumbar Discography Spinal Cord StimulationPercutaneous Disc Decompression For more information on musculoskeletal conditionsyou can visit our patient education section on our website.Â orlincohen To make an appointment with me or any of our sub specialists, please call our office (5165362800)or visit us online.